3GPP initiated, IMS Centralized Services (ICS) paves the way for communication services that are based on IMS mechanisms. ICS enables IMS services for traditional circuit switched voice access. With ICS, user sessions are anchored in IMS network when user devices access via PS or CS access networks. UEs can be enhanced to support ICS capability otherwise UEs without ICS capability are also supported by ICS framework.
Seeds of today’s mobile communication were laid down in 1947 when the AT&T for the first time introduced the cellular concept of reusing radio frequency. Today, the cellular concept is fundamental to almost all mobile communication technologies.
This article provides an overview of the radio transmission technologies used in mobile cellular communication, right from 1G to 4G.
Femtocells, also known as ‘home base station or Home Node B’, are cellular network access points also called Femtocell Access Points (FAP) that operate in a limited geographic area in licensed spectrum, may operate over the public internet, and supports a limited number of simultaneous users in a home environment. Its principal functions are for coverage extension and for offloading users from the cellular network.
LTE Stands for Long Term Evolution. It is the highly flexible radio interface defined by 3GPP. The basic transmission technique used by LTE is Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM).
LTE downlink uses OFDM in its original form however uplink uses a variant of OFDM known as Single Carrier - FDMA (SC-FDMA).
Earlier, I blogged about E-UTRAN and its interface with LTE core network. Similar to RAN, with 3GPP release 8, core network also evolved and called Evolved Packet Core or “EPC” in short. With LTE, 3GPP has gone away from circuit switched core and has fully aligned with packet core.
Whenever a Linux system is powered on a series of action is performed before you receive a login prompt. This sequence of Linux OS startup is referred to as the boot process.
This article provides the detailed description of what happens behind the scene during Linux boot process for x86 systems.
YUM stands for Yellowdog Updater Modified. YUM is an interactive, rpm based package management software which is used for installing, updating and removing the rpm packages without dwelling into the complexity of package dependencies.
The following procedure describes the steps to configure YUM repository on 64 bit RHEL6 server using iso.
FTP following packages to the /root folder on linux server
With Release 8, 3GPP has introduced a whole new set of protocols as both radio access network and core network have evolved from the earlier 2G & 3G Networks. In LTE architecture, evolved core network includes Mobility Management Entity (MME), Serving Gateway (SGW), Packet Data Network Gateway (PDN GW) where as evolved radio network has only E-UTRAN NodeB (eNB).